Manipulation of ubiquitin/SUMO pathways in human herpesviruses infection
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Post-translational modification of proteins with ubiquitin/small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) molecules triggers multiple signaling pathways that are critical for many aspects of cellular physiology. Given that viruses hijack the biosynthetic and degradative systems of their host, it is not surprising that viruses encode proteins to manipulate the host's cellular machinery for ubiquitin/SUMO modification at multiple levels. Infection with a herpesvirus, among the most ubiquitous human DNA viruses, has been linked to many human diseases, including cancers. The interplay between human herpesviruses and the ubiquitylation/SUMOylation modification system has been extensively investigated in the past decade. In this review, we present an overview of recent advances to address how the ubiquitin/SUMO-modified system alters the latency and lytic replication of herpesvirus and how herpesviruses usurp the ubiquitin/SUMO pathways against the host's intrinsic and innate immune response to favor their pathogenesis.