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Inhibition of KAP1 Enhances Hypoxia-Induced Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Reactivation through RBP-Jκ
Verma, Subhash C.
Robertson, Erle S.
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Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) has been frequently implicated in many cancers as well as viral pathogenesis. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is linked to several human malignancies. It can stabilize HIF-1α during latent infection and undergoes lytic replication in response to hypoxic stress. However, the mechanism by which KSHV controls its latent and lytic life cycle through the deregulation of HIF-1α is not fully understood. Our previous studies showed that the hypoxia-sensitive chromatin remodeler KAP1 was targeted by the KSHV-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) to repress expression of the major lytic replication and transcriptional activator (RTA). Here we further report that an RNA interference-based knockdown of KAP1 in KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells disrupted viral episome stability and abrogated sub-G1/G1 arrest of the cell cycle while increasing the efficiency of KSHV lytic reactivation by hypoxia or using the chemical 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or sodium butyrate (NaB). Moreover, KSHV genome-wide screening revealed that four hypoxia-responsive clusters have a high concurrence of both RBP-Jκ and HIF-1α binding sites (RBS+HRE) within the same gene promoter and are tightly associated with KAP1. Inhibition of KAP1 greatly enhanced the association of RBP-Jκ with the HIF-1α complex for driving RTA expression not only in normoxia but also in hypoxia. These results suggest that both KAP1 and the concurrence of RBS+HRE within the RTA promoter are essential for KSHV latency and hypoxia-induced lytic reactivation.