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Seismic Analysis of the AISI LRFD Design Example of Steel Highway Bridges
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The seismic specifications for highway bridges went through changes as a result of damaging earthquakes. In 1956, bridge specifications included a static load approach for the design of bridges in seismic zones. This approach was mainly based on the Structural Engineering Association of California (SEAOC) Blue Book, which specifies a percentage of the dead load and use it as lateral loads to account for seismic forces [l]. Recognizing the shortcomings of static forces in accounting for dynamic seismic forces, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), in 1968, included the effect of dynamic characteristics of bridges in the seismic design process . Elastic dynamic analyses were performed during the seismic design of California bridges. However, after the significant highway damage during the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, Caltrans adopted in 1973, new seismic design criteria that included: � Seismicity � Soil Effect � Dynamic Characteristics � Ductility/Risk Reduction Factor
Report No. CCEER 00-8