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Diabetes Mellitus: The Role of Insulin Receptor Substrate (IRS)-1 Phosphorylation by Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-? in Inducing Insulin Resistance and a Model Case Study
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Biochem and Molecular Biology
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Diabetes Mellitus is a commonly known disease in the United States. Over eight percent of the population has the disease, and close to another twenty percent are considered pre-diabetic and are susceptible to acquiring the disease in the future. Diabetes is dangerous not solely because of the symptoms it presents, but also because of the associated diseases (such as cardiovascular disease) linked to diabetic patients. The first chapter of this thesis outlines the disease, indicating the pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, genetics, and epidemiology. The second chapter provides a literature review of a possible mechanism that causes insulin resistance. Tumor Necrosis Factor –? is a molecule believed to phosphorylate and inactivate another molecule, Insulin Receptor Substrate-1. The specificities of this mechanism are further elucidated through experimental data. The third chapter is a case study that highlights a clinical visit from a patient presenting with symptoms of Type II Diabetes Mellitus. The case study includes common information typically gathered by a physician during a patient visit, such as the patient history, physical exam, and diagnostic work, and includes the development of the medical diagnosis and treatment plan.