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Dynamic Windows Based on Reversible Metal Electrodeposition with Enhanced Functionality
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Electronically tintable windows increase the energy efficiency and comfort of buildings and automobiles. Recently, dynamic windows harnessing reversible metal electrodeposition have been explored as a viable alternative to electrochromic materials. In this manuscript, we first construct 25 cm(2) dynamic windows with two tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) working electrodes, a metal frame counter electrode, and an aqueous-based electrolyte containing metal ions. This arrangement allows metal electrodeposition to occur simultaneously on both window panes and increases switching speed such that devices switch to similar to 30% transmission in 10 s compared to analogous windows with one working electrode which take 30 s to reach the same transmission value. Windows with two working electrodes switch between clear (similar to 82% transmission at 600 nm) and black (similar to 8% transmission at 600 nm) states within 30 s, making them among the fastest metal-based dynamic windows reported on this scale. Second, we elicit selective metal electrodeposition on Pt nanoparticles that are attached to ITO substrates via a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). By patterning the SAM of Pt nanoparticles, metal electrodeposition can be spatially controlled on both the macroscale and microscale. Taken together, these results demonstrate the versatility of the reversible metal electrodeposition architecture for dynamic windows. (C) The Author(s) 2019. Published by ECS.
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