This special issue brings together 10 research articles and review article which nicely illustrate the wide spectrum of basic inner ear research and its related research about central auditory pathway. While some cutting-edge researches about neuroimaging study of central pathway including auditory cortex and higher cognitive function were illustrated, basic inner ear studies using many kinds of animal models were also described. In detail, diabetic mice, gerbil hearing loss model with aminoglycoside administration, and specifically devised early progressive hearing loss model were introduced. This special issue also includes deriving significant clinical implication, predicting the surgical outcomes from the data of cochlear implant recipients. Finally, the art of nanomedicine was thoroughly reviewed in the field of inner ear research.