Tuberculosis: The Opportunistic Disease
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Tuberculosis is an ancient disease caused by one of the most virulent and fatal biological agents; Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) infection, which was nearly eradicated a generation ago, started to reemerge in a concerning manner in the late 1980’s and the dawn of the 21st century. Different categories of TB (latent, active, and extrapulmonary) infections were explored in depth in this study. Each of the three types exhibits specific pathophysiology, characteristic clinical features, and epidemiological patterns. The synergistic role of co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in activating TB infections was addressed in the context of diagnosis and treatment. Additionally, the complex correlation between a rather lengthy, diverse, and oftentimes inadequate casemanagement and the subsequent emergence of drug-resistant and M. tuberculosis was highlighted.