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A fatal case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage as the initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus: A case report and literature review
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare fatal pulmonary complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The clinical syndrome is characterized by hemoptysis, acute fall in hematocrit, hypoxemic respiratory failure, and diffuses pulmonary infiltrates. We describe a case of 23-year-old female who presented with Ludwig's angina that was complicated by diffuse alveolar hemorrhage as the initial presentation of undiagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus. A high index of suspicion is need for prompt diagnosis and treatment in order to avoid the high mortality associated with such cases.