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Diagnostic approaches and treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis. A review article
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Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is a condition that involves eosinophilic influx into the esophageal epithelium. It affects both children and adultsAdults present with dysphagia whereas children with vague abdominal complaints. The clinical symptoms as well as pathologic features of EoE and gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) are similar. Since eosinophilia in the esophagus is a non-specific finding, the clinical presentation in conjunction with endoscopic findings and pathology, is crucial in determining a differential diagnosis. Infections such as parasites, allergic phenomenon, Crohn's disease, malignancies, medication, and chemotherapy are all associated with eosinophilia. A primary endoscopic difference to note between EoE and GERD is that EoE often involves long segments of the esophagus, could be patchy or focal and frequently involves the proximal esophagus. GERD, however, typically involves the distal much more frequently than the proximal esophagus. Because of the similarity between them, GERD should be excluded by using high dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment or through evidence of a normal pH by esophageal testing, prior to treatment with an elimination diet or steroids. Until further research establishes different diagnostic tests and criteria, clinical and pathological response to therapy is considered to be the absolute confirmation of this diagnosis. The following is a more detailed discussion of this entity. (C) 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IJS Publishing Group Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license