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Photocatalytic Degradation of Estriol Using Iron-Doped TiO2 under High and Low UV Irradiation
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Iron-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (Fe-TiO2) were synthesized and photocatalitically investigated under high and low fluence values of UV radiation. The Fe-TiO2 physical characterization was performed using X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS evidenced that the ferric ion (Fe3+) was in the TiO2 lattice and unintentionally added co-dopants were also present because of the precursors of the synthetic method. The Fe3+ concentration played a key role in the photocatalytic generation of hydroxyl radicals ((OH)-O-center dot) and estriol (E3) degradation. Fe-TiO2 accomplished E3 degradation, and it was found that the catalyst with 0.3 at.% content of Fe (0.3 Fe-TiO2) enhanced the photocatalytic activity under low UV irradiation compared with TiO2 without intentionally added Fe (zero-iron TiO2) and Aeroxide (R) TiO2 P25. Furthermore, the enhanced photocatalytic activity of 0.3 Fe-TiO2 under low UV irradiation may have applications when radiation intensity must be controlled, as in medical applications, or when strong UV absorbing species are present in water.
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