An Overview of Direct Current Distribution System Architectures & Benefits
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This paper examines existing and future direct current (DC) distribution systems with a wide range of applications in data centers, telecommunication systems, commercial buildings, residential homes, electric vehicles, spacecraft, and aircrafts. DC distribution systems have many advantages and disadvantages over their alternating current (AC) counterparts. There are a few surviving examples of DC distribution systemsamong them are the telecommunication systems and data centers that use the low-voltage 48 Vdc systems. However, recently, there has been a move towards higher DC bus voltages. In this paper, a comparative study of different DC distribution architectures and bus structures is presented and voltage level selection is discussed for maximizing system efficiency and reliability, reducing system costs, and increasing the flexibility of the system for future expansion. Furthermore, DC distribution systems are investigated from a safety standpoint and the current global market for these distribution systems is also discussed.
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