Quinoa Abiotic Stress Responses: A Review
Gonzalez, Juan A.
Barrios-Masias, Felipe H.
Murphy, Kevin M.
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Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a genetically diverse Andean crop that has earned special attention worldwide due to its nutritional and health benefits and its ability to adapt to contrasting environments, including nutrient-poor and saline soils and drought stressed marginal agroecosystems. Drought and salinity are the abiotic stresses most studied in quinoahowever, studies of other important stress factors, such as heat, cold, heavy metals, and UV-B light irradiance, are severely limited. In the last few decades, the incidence of abiotic stress has been accentuated by the increase in unpredictable weather patterns. Furthermore, stresses habitually occur as combinations of two or more. The goals of this review are to: (1) provide an in-depth description of the existing knowledge of quinoa's tolerance to different abiotic stressors(2) summarize quinoa's physiological responses to these stressorsand (3) describe novel advances in molecular tools that can aid our understanding of the mechanisms underlying quinoa's abiotic stress tolerance.