Effect of the number of breakfasts and the amount of breakfast consumed by 4th grade children on total daily nutrient and energy intake
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Childhood overweight and obesity is a rising epidemic that is a major public health concern. Objective: To determine the effects of breakfast skipping, and single, and multiple breakfast eating on total daily energy consumption, and daily carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium and iron intake for 4th grade children on a Universal Free Breakfast Program. Methods: The Spears Point of Sale Dietary Assessment Tool (Spears POS-DAT) was used to determine which subjective dietary assessment tool was most accurate: 24-hour recall or food record. Breakfast and lunch was collected for 7 school days at an elementary school with the Spears POS-DAT. During this time subjects completed a 9-day food record (included weekend) or two 24-hour recalls. The 24-hour recall was determined the more accurate subjective assessment method. Spears POS-DAT information was combined with data for all food reported as consumed outside of school for the total daily intake values. Welch t-tests were conducted to determine the difference of means between multiple and single breakfast eaters (no breakfast skippers were in the study sample). Results: Fifty students were included in the analysis of dietary assessment tools. Twenty-five students were in the 24-hour recall group and whose information was analyzed in the breakfast intake comparisons. Multiple breakfast eaters consumed significantly more total kilocalories, carbohydrates and calcium than single breakfast eaters. No significant differences were found between the groups for protein, fat and iron. Conclusion: Children who consume multiple breakfasts on a Universal Free Breakfast Program consume significantly more total kilocalories than single breakfast eaters, which exceeded kilocalories than are recommended by the Children's Nutrition Research Center, 2007 Dietary Reference Intakes for children 9-13 years olds.