Self-Esteem and Actual, Reflected, and Self-Appraisals of Swimmers in Early Adolescence
AuthorWeiss, Sharon M.
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This study was an exploration of the relationship among appraisals (actual, reflected, and self-) and how this relationship might bear some association with early adolescent swimmers' self-appraisals (or self-perceptions) in the domains of scholastic competence, athletic competence, and physical appearance, as well as their global self-worth. A clear pattern, consistent across all domains of inquiry, emerged regarding variability among the adolescents' self-appraisals, their reflected appraisals of their parents and coaches, and the actual appraisals of their parents and coaches. First, as the level of competence/adequacy increased, variability among appraisals decreased. Similarly, lower competence/adequacy scores were associated with more discrepant appraisals. Second, a lower level of global self-worth was associated not only with lower mean scores in each of the three domains, but also greater variability among the actual, reflected, and self-appraisals specific to each domain. Finally, online administration of the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents resulted in findings consistent with the traditional paper and pencil administration of the instrument, which offers support for both the reliability of the instrument and the potential benefits of internet research. This study offers support for symbolic interactionist theory and has important implications for the role of the evaluations of others in the development of individuals' self-perceptions regarding their competence/adequacy in various domains and their global self-esteem.