Positive Behavior Support: CIPP Evaluation
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This study used a CIPP evaluation approach to investigate the implementations and impacts of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) implementation in four elementary schools. This evaluation answered the following questions:Context:1. Why did the school implement SWPBS?2. What student behavior problems were present at the beginning of the study?3. What were the levels of student behavior problems within each school the year prior to SWPBS implementation?Input: 4. What training was provided to the staff at each school?5. What resources (financial and human) were provided to each school?Process: 6. What was level of fidelity of implementation of SWPBS?7. How did the school implement SWPBS?Product 8. Did student behaviors change after implementation of SWPBS?9. Did student academic achievement change after implementation of SWPBS?In the short history of SWPBS several studies have examined the implementation and outcomes of the program. Several studies found a positive relationship between the level of implementation and reduction of student problem behaviors. Some early research found that correlations between implementation of SWPBS and increased academic achievement on statewide or district-wide assessments.This evaluation study employed a mixed methods approach to gather data on the implementation fidelity of SWPBS, student behavior data and student achievement data to answer each of the nine evaluation questions. Qualitative data included interviews with three or four staff members at each school. Quantitative data included SWPBS implementation fidelity instrument (BoQ and SET) outcomes, office discipline referrals, and student pass rate percentages at each school in the 3rd and 5th grades for both ELA and math state assessments. The findings of this evaluation are consistent with other SWPBS studies. Specifically, results indicated that schools that implemented SWPBS with fidelity had improvements in school climate and reductions in problem student behaviors. Data indicated that schools which implemented SWPBS with fidelity had increases in academic achievement as measured by ELA and math state assessments. Consistent with current literature, this evaluation found that school staffs need buy-in and support from an administrator who will serve as a champion of implementation to facilitate successful change. In schools that implemented SWPBS with fidelity, student behaviors and student achievement improved. Finally, within this study, the data suggests that schools which implemented with fidelity may be positioned to facilitate second-order changes.