Removing Barriers for Effective Deployment of Intermittent Renewable Generation
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The stochastic nature of intermittent renewable resources is the main barrier to effective integration of renewable generation. This problem can be studied from feeder-scale and grid-scale perspectives. Two new stochastic methods are proposed to meet the feeder-scale controllable load with a hybrid renewable generation (including wind and PV) and energy storage system. For the first method, an optimization problem is developed whose objective function is the cost of the hybrid system including the cost of renewable generation and storage subject to constraints on energy storage and shifted load. A smart-grid strategy is developed to shift the load and match the renewable energy generation and controllable load. Minimizing the cost function guarantees minimum PV and wind generation installation, as well as storage capacity selection for supplying the controllable load. A confidence coefficient is allocated to each stochastic constraint which shows to what degree the constraint is satisfied. In the second method, a stochastic framework is developed for optimal sizing and reliability analysis of a hybrid power system including renewable resources (PV and wind) and energy storage system. The hybrid power system is optimally sized to satisfy the controllable load with a specified reliability level. A load-shifting strategy is added to provide more flexibility for the system and decrease the installation cost. Load shifting strategies and their potential impacts on the hybrid system reliability/cost analysis are evaluated trough different scenarios. Using a compromise-solution method, the best compromise between the reliability and cost will be realized for the hybrid system. For the second problem, a grid-scale stochastic framework is developed to examine the storage application and its optimal placement for the social cost and transmission congestion relief of wind integration. Storage systems are optimally placed and adequately sized to minimize the sum of operation and congestion costs over a scheduling period. A technical assessment framework is developed to enhance the efficiency of wind integration and evaluate the economics of storage technologies and conventional gas-fired alternatives. The proposed method is used to carry out a cost-benefit analysis for the IEEE 24-bus system and determine the most economical technology. In order to mitigate the financial and technical concerns of renewable energy integration into the power system, a stochastic framework is proposed for transmission grid reinforcement studies in a power system with wind generation. A multi-stage multi-objective transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) methodology is developed which considers the investment cost, absorption of private investment and reliability of the system as the objective functions. A Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA II) optimization approach is used in combination with a probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) to determine the Pareto optimal solutions considering the power system uncertainties. Using a compromise-solution method, the best final plan is then realized based on the decision maker preferences. The proposed methodology is applied to the IEEE 24-bus Reliability Tests System (RTS) to evaluate the feasibility and practicality of the developed planning strategy.