Hydrodynamic stability and Ti-tracer distribution in low-adiabat OMEGA direct-drive implosions
AuthorJoshi, Tirtha R.
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We discuss the hydrodynamic stability of low-adiabat OMEGA direct-drive implosions based on results obtained from simultaneous emission and absorption spectroscopy of a titanium tracer added to the target. The targets were deuterium filled, warm plastic shells of varying thicknesses and filling gas pressures with a submicron Ti-doped tracer layer initially located on the inner surface of the shell. The spectral features from the titanium tracer are observed during the deceleration and stagnation phases of the implosion, and recorded with a time-integrated spectrometer (XRS1), streaked crystal spectrometer (SSCA) and three gated, multi-monochromatic X-ray imager (MMI) instruments fielded along quasi-orthogonal lines-of-sight. The time-integrated streaked and gated data show simultaneous emission and absorption spectral features associated with titanium K-shell line transitions but only the MMI data provides spatially resolved information. The arrays of gated spectrally resolved images recorded with MMI were processed to obtain spatially resolved spectra characteristic of annular contour regions on the image. A multi-zone spectroscopic analysis of the annular spatially resolved spectra permits the extraction of plasma conditions in the core as well as the spatial distribution of tracer atoms. In turn, the titanium atom distribution provides direct evidence of tracer penetration into the core and thus of the hydrodynamic stability of the shell. The observations, timing and analysis indicate that during fuel burning the titanium atoms have migrated deep into the core and thus shell material mixing is likely to impact the rate of nuclear fusion reactions, i.e. burning rate, and the neutron yield of the implosion. We have found that the Ti atom number density decreases towards the center in early deceleration phase, but later in time the trend is just opposite, i.e., it increases towards the center of the implosion core. This is in part a consequence of the convergent efect of the spherical geometry. The spatial profiles of Ti areal densities in the implosion core are extracted from space-resolved spectra and also evaluated using 1D spherical scaling. The trends are similar to the Ti number density spatial profiles. The areal densities extracted from data and 1D spherical scaling are very comparable in the outer spherical zones of the implosion core but signicantly deviate in the innermost zone. We have observed that approximately 85% of the Ti atoms migrate into the hot core, while 15% of the atoms are still on the shell-fuel interface and contributing to the absorption. In addition, a method to extract the hot spot size based on the formation of the absorption feature in a sequence of annular spectra will be discussed. Results and trends are discussed as a function of target shell thickness and filling pressure, and laser pulse shape.