Perceived Credibility of Historical Information across Video Genres Among College Students
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AbstractEducators, education administrators, parents, guardians, and policy makers are concerned with the use of Internet streaming video, both inside and outside the classroom. Since clearly defined sources and informed regulation of Internet information including streaming video are absent, students need to make credible evaluations of information. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in perceived credibility among college students from the viewing of videos. The data were gathered when the participants watched three different video genres depicting the same historical event. The participants answered the same questionnaire after watching each video. This study used a mixed method explanatory sequential design where the quantitative phase informed the qualitative phase, in a design framed using Fogg's Prominence-Interpretation Theory. Two quantitative research questions were addressed: (1) Are there significant differences in the credibility scores among participants receiving the information across three video genres? and (2) Is there a significant relationship between reported time spent watching Internet streaming video and perceived credibility of information for each participant across three streaming video genres? A non-parametric Friedman Test was used in order to answer research question 1. The results indicated a statistically significant difference in perceived credibility, p < .001. A post-hoc test revealed there were significant perceived credibility differences between CBS News and Apollo 13 and NASA and Apollo 13. The difference between CBS News and NASA was not found to be significant. In order to answer research question 2 a non-parametric correlation test was applied using Spearman's rho. The results were significant, p = .030. On the other hand, the effect size was small, .20. After the quantitative data analysis, two focus groups were created. Focus Group One was made up of younger participants (mean age = 18.5) and Focus Group Two of older participants (mean age = 36.5). Six focus group questions emerged from the quantitative data analysis. The focus group responses were sorted out into sub-themes using a six-step process. The data revealed the focus group participants' defined credibility as a trusted source/expert and straight, factual information. Both groups emphasized the importance of evaluating video credibility in order to avert being manipulated and to be aware of biases. The qualitative data analysis, to some extent, mirrored the quantitative data analysis. The difference between the CBS News footage and the NASA clip was not found to be statistically significant. Similarly, the focus group participants were "torn between" the CBS News footage and the NASA clip as being most credible. The Apollo 13 clip received no responses for being most credible. Keywords: credibility, digital generation, younger generation, older generation, streaming video.