The Effects of Video Self-Modeling on Functional Life Skills in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder
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Single-subject research design assessed the effects of the video self-modeling (VSM) teaching method on functional life skills for three high school students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a home setting. VSM is a teaching method in which an individual views a video clip, watching herself/himself engaging in a task (behavior). This is meant to build familiarity with the task, enhancing the individual’s ability to perform it independently. By applying this method to functional life skills, which are necessary for high school students with ASD, it may be possible to help them build the skills necessary to live independently. The current study utilized a non-concurrent multiple baseline across behaviors research design, which was implemented to answer the research questions: (1) What are the effects of VSM on functional life skills for high school students with ASD in a home setting? (2) Once acquired, are functional life skills maintained over a period of time? (3) Does VSM provoke self-efficacy beliefs in high school students with ASD? The study was guided by self-efficacy theory. Self-efficacy refers to a person’s self-belief that she/he is capable of completing a task. With this in mind, it is hypothesized that by using VSM as a teaching method, participants will learn functional life skills, maintain these skills over time, and report higher levels of self-efficacy beliefs post-intervention. Visual analyses were utilized to analyze and interpret study results. Visual analyses consisted of analyzing any changes in variability, level, and trend of each phase by implementing a line graph. Reliability was assessed through Inter-observer Agreement (IOA). Procedural integrity was verified for procedures implemented in phases of the study. Results from visual analyses from the study suggest VSM is an effective teaching method for adolescents with ASD in a home setting. Additionally, all participants maintained their acquired functional life skills post one week, and post two weeks following the end of VSM phase. Descriptive statistics was applied to evaluate pre and post assessment of self-efficacy beliefs for participants. Specifically, the total, mean total, and median are reported. The study found that VSM is effective for helping high school students with ASD develop and maintain functional life skills. Results revealed no significant changes occurred between pre and post assessment of self-efficacy beliefs for all participants. Participants and their mothers reported overall positive perceptions of social validity. Implications for practice and theory are discussed, as well as directions for future research.