Integrating Gamification Principles into Photography Skill Learning: The Influence of Games on Student Motivation
AuthorDini, Domenic Joseph
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Changes to the global economic environment have introduced innovations in technology that replace human workers to complete repetitive tasks. Due to the removal of these jobs, workers are required to develop new skills to compete for emerging jobs. However, lack of motivation to learn skills and content taught in schools has been a problem that creates the possibility that current students will not be prepared to enter the future workforce. To help improve intrinsic motivation and skills development, gamification has been explored as a mechanism for learning. The aim of this study was to explore the six intrinsically motivating factors required for gamified design (Malone & Lepper, 1987) and their effect on learning outcomes. One hundred thirty-one middle school students participated in the game CLICK that was designed to teach them photography skills. At the conclusion of the game, students were tested on their photography knowledge and given the Intrinsic Motivations Survey to record feelings about their game experience. Multiple regression analysis was conducted on test and survey data for all students, female students only, and male students only. Findings from these analyses show that curiosity and control predicted test scores for all students and male students. There were no predictor variables that predicted test scores for female students, but the number of participants for female and male groups was too small and should not be used to inform gamified design for gender-specific applications. A maximum likelihood estimation SEM model was generated using test and survey data from all students and had an excellent fit to the data (Model χ2 = 9.35, p = .499; RMSEA < .001; CFI = 1.000; TLI = 1.002). This model showed that curiosity, control, and challenge had direct and indirect effects on test scores. Findings from this study show that: (a) curiosity is a necessary factor that needs to be embedded into gamified design; (b) control needs to be managed to avoid poor learning outcomes; and (c) challenges need to be implemented to promote curiosity and avoid control issues.